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Popular Uprising: Eve of the End of Era of Domination and Transition to New World Order (PIII)

As spelt out in the previous part of this article, the decisive pillars for the existence, strength and security of a nation are:

1.    National harmony
2.    Socio-economic and cultural justice
3.    Independent path


Part III

As spelt out in the previous part of this article, the decisive pillars for the existence, strength and security of a nation are:

1.    National harmony
2.    Socio-economic and cultural justice
3.    Independent path

Within the context of these yardsticks, the root cause for national instability and popular uprising that lead to failed states could be classified into 3 major factors:

1.    Absence of domestic unity i.e. marginalization along the lines of ethnicity, religion, tribe and class etc.  
2.     Socio-economic problems, namely abject poverty, corruption, poor management and the like.
3.    Foreign relations i.e. becoming an agent, as well as unjust political and economic ties

Accordingly, although the current popular uprising in North Africa and the Middle East has unique characteristic features from one country to the other, apart from internal factors, the main and major cause emanates from the unfair and suppressive political and economic relations pursued with external quarters for a long time. And this external factor basically has played key role in undermining domestic harmony and paralyzing the socio-economic condition of the people, as well as tarnishing national dignity.   

As a result, the Middle East region that has been supplying 80% energy needs of the world has for long been the prime target of western companies, as their defense industries and security agencies rely on it.  Thus, this region has fallen victim to obstructive policies and naked economic and political interference on the part of these same companies.  This phenomenon amply demonstrates the existing exploitative economic and trade order at the global level. Western companies, especially that of the United States amassed wealth amounting to not billions but trillions of dollars from the Middle East over the past century.  Despite the fact that the oil revenue brought about limited improvement in the lifestyle of the people of the region, those who benefited above the indigenous population from the natural resource are only the handful owners of capital and their local accomplices.

Another significant factor that has a major impact in Middle East politics is the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. This problem that remains unresolved since the mid 40s gave room for open external interference in the politics of the Middle East countries. It particularly compromised the national dignity and security of some governments. It is also to be noted that the problem not only led to permanent crisis between the Arab countries and Israel but also entailed large-scale wars with dire psychological consequences and embitterment among nationals in the Arab world.  The popular uprising currently witnessed in the Arab countries is closely linked with the prevailing global strategy of domination, beyond domestic issues. In this respect, in order to have profound understating about the Middle East situation, it is imperative to closely scrutinize the path traversed by Egypt that played a leading role in the politics of the region. 

Background

The Arab Republic of Egypt with a population of 84 million is not only a country that borders significant international waterways, namely the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea but also one that exercises sovereignty over the Suez Canal and through which the longest river in the world, i.e. the Nile flows.   Moreover, it is a very strategic nation in terms of economic, trade, political and security significance. As such, developments that surface in Egypt have obvious impact on the entire region and the world at large. For this very reason, it is not that difficult to discern the major external interference resorted to with a view to directing the political life of the country through undermining the people’s independent choice.

The banks along the Nile River within Egyptian territory where communities practiced sedentary farming activities dating back to 3, 2000 B.C. is the site in which one of the main ancient civilizations in the world flourished. Beginning with the 4th century, various external forces of invasion sought to exercise control over the country’s strategic location. In the wake of the Arab invasion of the area in 641 A.D, Egypt became an integral part of the Islamic and Arab world.  It is worth mentioning that today’s Egypt is an Islamic nation inhabited with majority Moslems and limited number of Christians. Besides, descendants of former invaders like the Turks, Greeks and Romans live in the country. 

Modern state governance emerged in Egypt during the period 1805 to 1849. The country was then under Turkish rule. With the weakening of the Ottoman Empire, Britain colonized Egypt in 1882.  Although London declared Egypt a free Kingdom in 1922 after 40 years of direct colonial rule, that status was only limited as British military presence continued. The number of British troops stationed in the country equally multiplied under the guise of ensuring the security of the Suez Canal during World War II. Thereafter, contrary to the aspirations of the Egyptian people who were embittered with continued British rule, the Egyptian Kingdom enhanced cooperation with Britain, and thus becoming subservient to external forces.  Even though Britain withdrew its forces from Egypt by the end of the Second World War in 1945, it nonetheless retained control over the Suez Canal.  In the meantime, with the mounting popular opposition against such external entity, the wrath of the people against the Egyptian monarchy was in the upsurge.   As a result, the Moslem Brotherhood, a political organization active since 1928 and other political movements that were influenced by communist ideology of the day began to win broad popular support.

Egypt together with other Arab countries launched the first unsuccessful war in 1948 in a bid to prevent the establishment of an Israeli state in Palestinian territory, with the latter emerging victorious. Despite this, however, Egypt managed to become not only the spearhead of the Arab opposition against Zionism but also the pride of the Arab world. Meanwhile, the fact that Britain and other western countries stood alongside Israel in that war prompted the existing hatred of the Egyptian people against the western countries to reach its climax.  Egyptian Army officers who were embittered with the defeat decided to topple King Farouk’s monarchic rule. In the meantime, when British forces killed 50 Egyptian police officers following confrontation between the British Army and Egyptian soldiers in January 1950, the people of Egypt mounted fierce popular insurrection resulting in the destruction of several parts of Cairo city. This first popular uprising eventually led to the destruction of the Egyptian monarchy, thus paving the way for the establishment of the Arab Republic of Egypt.

As mentioned earlier, the fact that developments in the strategic Egyptian state affects the whole Middle East and the world at large, the major powers do not view it lightly. In light of this, both the eastern and western camps were engaged in fierce competition during the Cold War era in order to have dominant control over Egypt. 

In line with the US assumption that maintaining firm control over Egypt holds the key to ensuring the existence of the State of Israel, Washington has been employing various ploys and conspiracies over the past 50 years, including that of bringing to power puppet individuals on the one hand, and paralyzing the Egyptian State to the level of not posing a threat to Israel on the other.  The US acts of conspiracy involved political, economic, military and psychological aspects. These ploys exposed the socio-economic condition of the Egyptian people from bad to worse, and ultimately gave rise to the current crisis. The next part of the article will highlight the state paralysis strategy and its aftermath.

 

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